WEATHER
 

Indian Climate
 

The climate of India defies easy generalization, comprising a wide range of weather conditions across a large geographic scale and varied topography. Analyzed according to the Köppen system, India hosts six major climatic subtypes, ranging from desert in the west, to alpine tundra and glaciers in the north, to humid tropical regions supporting rain forests in the southwest and the island territories. Many regions have starkly different micro climates. The nation has four seasons: winter (January and February), summer (March to May), a monsoon (rainy) season (June to September), and a post-monsoon period (October to December).

India’s unique geography and geology strongly influence its climate; this is particularly true of the Himalayas in the north and the Thar Desert in the northwest. The Himalayas act as a barrier to the frigid katabatic winds flowing down from Central Asia. Thus, North India is kept warm or only mildly cold during winter; in summer, the same phenomenon makes India relatively hot. Although the Tropic of Cancer—the boundary between the tropics and subtropics—passes through the middle of India, the whole country is considered to be tropical.

Temperatu

Average temperatures in various Indian cities (°C)

 

Winter
(Dec – Feb)
Summer
(Mar – May)
Monsoon
(Jun – Sep)
Post-monsoon
(Oct – Nov)
Year-round
City Min Avg Max Min Avg Max Min Avg Max Min Avg Max Avg



Port Blair

23


26

28

25


27

29

25

27

27

25

26

28

27
Thiruvananthapuram 23 26 29 24 27 30 28 26 24 29 26 23 26
Bangalore 7 12 18 13 18 23 15 19 23 8 13 18 17
Nagpur 14 21 28 24 32 40 24 27 30 16 22 28 26
Bhopal 13 18 24 23 30 36 23 26 28 16 22 26 25
Guwahati 11 17 24 19 25 31 25 28 32 17 22 27 24
Lucknow 10 15 21 23 30 35 24 29 33 15 20 25 25
Jaisalmer 7 14 23 24 33 40 23 29 35 12 19 27 22
Dehradun 4 12 20 14 23 32 22 26 30 7 15 23 18
Amritsar 4 10 18 13 25 34 25 28 32 10 16 24 21
Shimla 1 5 9 10 14 18 15 18 20 7 10 13 13
Srinagar −2 4 6 7 14 19 16 22 30 1 8 16 13
Leh −13 −6 0 −1 6 12 10 16 24 −7 0 7 6

Seasons

 

The India Meteorological Department (IMD) designates four official seasons:
Winter, occurring from December to early April. The year’s coldest months are December and January, when temperatures average around 10–15 °C (50–59 °F) in the northwest; temperatures rise as one proceeds towards the equator, peaking around 20–25 °C (68–77 °F) in mainland India’s southeast.
Summer or pre-monsoon season, lasting from April to June (April to July in northwestern India). In western and southern regions, the hottest month is April; for northern regions, May is the hottest month. Temperatures average around 32–40 °C (90–104 °F) in most of the interior.
Monsoon or rainy season, lasting from June to September. The season is dominated by the humid southwest summer monsoon, which slowly sweeps across the country beginning in late May or early June. Monsoon rains begin to recede from North India at the beginning of October. South India typically receives more rainfall.

Post-monsoon season, lasting from October to December. In northwestern India, October and November are usually cloudless. Tamil Nadu receives most of its annual precipitation in the northeast monsoon season.

The Himalayan states, being more temperate, experience an additional two seasons: autumn and spring. Traditionally, Indians note six seasons, each about two months long. These are the spring, summer, monsoon season, early autumn, late autumn and winter .These are based on the astronomical division of the twelve months into six parts. The ancient Hindu calendar also reflects these seasons in its arrangement of months.